¿Quién borda en 1070 el Tapiz de Bayeux?

Edward’s instructions to Harold’, (19th century?). Harold Godwineson is advised by King Edward the Confessor. Illustration of a section from the Bayeux Tapestry, the famous embroidery depicting the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Artist Unknown. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images)
The Bayeux Tapestry. Scene 38: William and His Fleet Cross the Channel, circa 1070. Found in the Collection of Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux. (Photo by Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images)

La mayoría de los historiadores creen que es encargado en 1070 por Odón, obispo de Bayeux, hermanastro de Guillermo el Conquistador.

Harold’s Coronation’, (19th century?). King Harold II is crowned by Archbishop Stigand. Illustration of a section from the Bayeux Tapestry, the famous embroidery depicting the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Artist Unknown. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images)
The Death of Harold at the Battle of Hastings, 1066. Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry/ Tapisserie de Bayeux: La telle du conquest (a 0.5-by-68.38-metre (1.6 by 224.3 ft) long embroidered cloth depicting the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England as well as the events of the invasion itself, annotated in Latin. It is exhibited in a special museum in Bayeux, Normandy called Musée de la Tapisserie de Bayeux.) (Photo by Culture Club/Getty Images) *** Local Caption ***

El propio Odón aparece varias veces en la obra, incluso en la batalla de Hasting, donde se ve alentando a los soldados normandos.

El destino original del tapiz puede ser la nueva catedral consagrada en 1077, o un castillo.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman fleet sets sail for England, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
1066, A section of the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth 231 feet long depicting the Norman Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Es muy probable que se realizaran bocetos en tela antes de ser bordados, tarea que se lleva a cabo en Inglaterra, no en Francia por costureras anglosajonas cuyo talento es muy apreciado en toda Europa.

Duke William Exhorts his Troops to Prepare Themselves Wisely Like Men for the Battle Against the English Army, detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, before 1082 (wool embroidery on linen) (Photo by Art Images via Getty Images)
Norman Invasion depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry. (Photo by Time Life Pictures/Mansell/The LIFE Picture Collection via Getty Images)

Se cree que el diseñador del tapiz es Scolland, abad del monasterio de San Agustín de Canterbury en el condado de Kent.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, detail. France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Battle of Hastings & Death of Harold’, (19th century?). King Harold is shot in the eye with an arrow and killed. Illustration of a section from the Bayeux Tapestry, the famous embroidery depicting the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Artist Unknown. (Photo by Print Collector/Getty Images)

1064 es el monje de Mont Saint Michel de Normandía por lo que cabe pensar que conoce los lugares y los hechos narrados.

Guillermo el Conquistador
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, detail. France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Circa 1090, The Norman army crossing the channel and food being prepared in the Norman conquest of England depicted in the Bayeux tapestry. Original Artwork: The Tapestry of Bayeux – Plate 10 (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

El Tapiz de Bayeux, un logro del arte medieval, narra unos hechos, que acontecen en Inglaterra y el norte de Francia entre 1064 y 1066, que terminan en la invasión y la conquista normanda de Inglaterra.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: King Harold heading towards the coast, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting the Norman Invasion of 1066. William the Conqueror’s troops land at Pevensey and make their way to Hastings, where they prepare food. The tapestry is housed in the town of Bayeux in Normandy. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Considerado hoy uno de los relatos históricos claves de la victoria de Guillermpo, duque de Normandia, contra Haroldo, conde de Wessex, la versión de los hechos del tapiz despierta el escepticismo de los historiadores.

Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry – XIth century D?tail de la Tapisserie de Bayeux -XI em si?cle ;sur plus de 70 m?tres de long et 50 centim?tres de hauteur, cette pi?ce retrace l’histoire de la conqu?te de l’Angleterre par Guillaume le Conqu?rant. (Photo by David LEFRANC/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images)
1066, A scene from the Bayeux tapestry depicting the Norman Conquest of Britain in 1066. (Photo by Henry Guttmann Collection/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Algunos elementos del relato pueden considerarse propaganda política que busca justificar las aspiraciones al trono ingles de Guillermo el Conquistador.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, detail. France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England. Specifically concerning William the Duke of Normandy and Harold, Earl of Wessex, and King of England. The events all lead up to the famous Battle of Hastings. It is not an actual tapestry, more an embroidered cloth that is almost 70 meters in length. It features fifty scenes with Latin tituli, or captions, and is thought to have been made in England in the 1070’s. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
1066: In a scene from the Bayeux Tapestry, Edward the Confessor (c.1003 – 1066) dies and the crown passes to King Harold II (c.1022 – 1066). In April of that year, Halley’s Comet passes overhead (bottom right). The tapestry is housed in the town of Bayeux in Normandy. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Creado para los normandos poco después de la conquista, el tapiz parece una tira cómica enorme ya que mide 70 metros de largo y 50 cm de alto.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman troops of William the Conqueror, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry. Battle of Hastings, 14 October 1066. Norman cavalry charging. William I, the Conqueror, defeated Harold II, last Anglo-Saxon king of England. (Photo by: Photo12/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Edward The Confessor, Anglo-Saxon king of England, 1070s. Edward (c1003-1066), king from 1042, on his throne. After Edward’s death, the throne was disputed between Harold Godwinson and William of Normandy, prompting the Norman Conquest of England. From the Bayeux Tapestry. The tapestry, which tells the story of the events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066, was probably commissioned by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, William’s half-brother. (Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)

Técnicamente no es un tapiz, sino un bordado, ya que las imágenes no están tejidas, sino cosidas sobre un lienzo de lino.

Episode from the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings, in 1066. It is thought to date to the 11th century, within a few years after the battle. It tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Funeral of St. Edward the Confessor, 1066
Bayeux Tapestry known in France as ‘La Tapisserie de la Reine Mathilde’ (Tapestry of Queen Mathilda) (Photo by: Godong/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: William the Conqueror’s fleet crossing the English Channel, detail from the Bayeux tapestry or the Tapestry of Queen Matilda. France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Embroidered scenes on the tapestry depicting the hit television series Game of Thrones are on show at the Ulster Museum in Belfast on July 5, 2019. – Like the Bayeux Tapestry, the Game of Thrones Tapestry is woven of fine linen and hand-embroidered, with decorative borders and a central pictorial narrative. It will reach 90 metres by the end of the final season of the show. (Photo by Paul Faith / AFP) (Photo credit should read PAUL FAITH/AFP via Getty Images)

La primera parte muestra a Haroldo capturado por el conde Guido, un noble normando tras un naufragio frente a la costa francesa.

Episode from the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings, in 1066. It is thought to date to the 11th century, within a few years after the battle. It tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Vintage engraving from 1876 of a section of the Bayeux Tapestry
FRANCE – CIRCA 1985: Bayeux Tapestry, fax-like; Norman work original conserved at the Museè de la Tapisserie in Bayeux (Photo by Alinari/Alinari Archives, Florence/Alinari via Getty Images)
A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting the Norman Invasion of 1066. King Harold II (c.1022 – 1066) is killed at the Battle of Hastings. The tapestry is housed in the town of Bayeux in Normandy. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
1066, A section of the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth 231 feet long depicting the Norman Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings. (Photo by Spencer Arnold Collection/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
Antique illustration of Bayeux Tapestry
Harold II, King of England, takes leave of Edward ‘The Confessor’ (right), King of England from 1042, on his departure for Normandy, in a scene in the Bayeux Tapestry, depicting the Norman conquest of England, circa 1064. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)

Rescatado por Guillermo, Haroldo jura casarse con la hija de este, una decisión que refuerza las aspiraciones de Guillermo al trono.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Men let horses get off the ship, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Reproduction de la Tapisserie de Bayeux (Tapisserie de la reine Mathilde) représentant la bataille d’Hastings, en 1066, réalisée en 1821. (Photo by API/Gamma-Rapho via Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry, Battle of Hastings, 14 October 1066. Anglo-Saxon foot soldiers defend themselves with wall of shields against Norman cavalry. Men lie dead and wounded. (Photo by: Photo12/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Scene of knights in battle, detail from the Bayeux tapestry or the Tapestry of Queen Matilda. France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry, 1070s. The tapestry, which tells the story of the events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066, was probably commissioned by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, half-brother of William the Conqueror. This section shows Harold II (c1022-1066), last Anglo-Saxon king of England, on a visit to Normandy in 1064, swearing an oath of loyalty to William, then Duke of Normandy. Harold broke the oath when, following the death of Edward the Confessor, he claimed the throne of England. William responded by invading England, taking the crown after defeating Harold at Hastings. (Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)
Two scenes from the Bayeux Tapestry. The Tapestry is actually an embroidered length of cloth rather than a tapestry and measures around 70 metres. It portrays the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England by William, Duke of Normandy, who overcame Harold, King of England at the Battle of Hastings in 1066. It contains around seventy scenes, though the last section is missing. From “French Pictures: Drawn With Pen and Pencil” by the Rev. Samuel G. Green, D.D. Published by The Religious Tract Society, London, 1878.
Vintage engraving of a scene from the Bayeux Tapestry showing Norman knights landing in England

Pero el juramento solo esta registrado en el tapiz y en otro documento normando muy posterior, lo que sugiere que el tapiz es un elemento clave de la propaganda normanda.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Cavalry, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Harold II, last Anglo-Saxon king of England, 1066 (1070s). Harold (c1022-1066) and companions feasting. Harold’s succession to the throne was disputed by William of Normandy, who invaded England in 1066 and defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings to claim the English crown. From the Bayeux Tapestry. The tapestry, which tells the story of the events leading to the Battle of Hastings in 1066, was probably commissioned by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, William’s half-brother. (Photo by Ann Ronan Pictures/Print Collector/Getty Images)

Cuando Haroldo vuelve a Inglaterra y es coronado rey, los normandos consideran que ha incumplido el juramento y lanzan una invasión que termina en la batalla de Hastings y la muerte de Haroldo.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman troops of William the Conqueror, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry: William II Duke of Normandy sailing to England, September 1066. W: Also known as William the Conquerer and William I, c. 1028 – 9 September 1087. 19th century illustration. (Photo by Culture Club/Getty Images) *** Local Caption ***

El ultimo panel del tapiz se pierde, pero algunos eruditos creen que puede mostrar la coronación de Guillermo y en tal caso su mensaje es claro, Guillermo es el rey legitimo de Inglaterra y Haroldo un mentiroso.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: William, Duke of Normandy, between half-brothers Odo, bishop of Bayeux and Robert of Mortain, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry, detail (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

Los expertos están divididos sobre la interpretación de los acontecimientos que narra el tapiz de Bayeux, pero su valor como documento histórico es indudable.

UNSPECIFIED – CIRCA 1754: Bayeux Tapestry 1067: A boat of William the Conqueror’s fleet carrying soldiers with their shields, arriving at Pevensey on the English coast. Invasion Textile Linen (Photo by Universal History Archive/Getty Images)
Episode from the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings, in 1066. It is thought to date to the 11th century, within a few years after the battle. It tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

Es el único registro visual de la batalla de Hastings y proporciona imágenes de aspectos importantes de la vida medieval, como ropa, agricultura, armas, personas, animales y edificios.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: William the Conqueror in armour about to mount his horse before the Battle of Hastings, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: William the Conqueror and his escorts on horseback, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

Y fueran cuales fueran las intenciones propagandísticas, constituye el cenit del arte bordado anglosajón.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Cavalry at Hastings battlefield, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Harold killed by chance arrow, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

El valor del arte como herramienta de propaganda se aprovecha desde el imperio romano, cuando se encargan grandes obras para conmemorar campañas militares.

Bayeux Tapestry:_A pictorial narrative account of the conquest of England by William of Normandy and death of Harold II at Battle of Hastings in 1066. Woman and child fleeing from burning house. (Photo by: Photo12/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
Bayeux Tapestry. Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex (later Harold _II of England), holding hawk, riding to Bosham for hunting and sea fishing. (Photo by: Photo12/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

En la era moderna el estado financia el arte para elevar la moral en épocas de guerra y para modificar la percepción de las naciones.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman fleet sets sail for England; repast prior to departure, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
A scene from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting King Edward talking with Harold. William the conqueror is seen hunting. The Bayeux Tapestry is an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long and 50 centimetres (20 in) tall, It depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England concerning William, Duke of Normandy, and Harold, Earl of Wessex, later King of England, and culminating in the Battle of Hastings. It is thought to date to the 11th century. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)

Del mismo modo que el realismo socialista glorifica los valores de Rusia soviética, la CIA exhibe la superioridad estadounidense mediante exposiciones itinerantes.

Episode from the Bayeux Tapestry, an embroidered cloth nearly 70 metres (230 ft) long, which depicts the events leading up to the Norman conquest of England, culminating in the Battle of Hastings, in 1066. It is thought to date to the 11th century, within a few years after the battle. It tells the story from the point of view of the conquering Normans. (Photo by: Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images)
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman archers lead Duke William’s army, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

Por su parte, los artistas independientes usan su creatividad para oponerse a la brutalidad de la guerra y la opresión del estado.

FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Norman knights chase the English, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)
Here Duke William of Normandy (c.1028-87) crosses the sea, detail from the Bayeux Tapestry, before 1082 (wool embroidery on linen) (Photo by Art Images via Getty Images)

Precedentes

106-113 d.C. la Columna de Trajano narra las victorias del emperador para enfatizar el poder de la Roma imperial

991 la viuda del conde sajón ofrece a la Abadía de Ely un tapiz que conmemora la valentía de su marido en la batalla de Maldon.

1801 Napoleón cruzando los Alpes, de Jaques Louis David, retrata a Napoleón de una manera heroica.

1937 el Guernica de Picasso es un poderoso alegato antibélico.

1946 el gobierno de EEUU expone cuadros de Georgina O´Keeffe detrás del Telón de Acero para contrarrestar las acusaciones soviéticas de la vacuidad cultural estadounidense.

https://www.abc.es/cultura/abci-resuelto-enigmatico-origen-tapiz-bayeux-tesoros-mas-celebres-edad-media-201910281818_noticia.html

PALFFY Georgina, ATKINSON Sam, El libro del Arte. Akal, Madrid 2019.

https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tapiz_de_Bayeux

https://www.elespanol.com/cultura/historia/20181217/mensaje-medieval-tapiz-bayeux-lleva-bordados-penes/360964405_0.html

https://elpais.com/cultura/2018/01/17/actualidad/1516182537_268990.html

Los títulos de crédito de apertura de la película La bruja novata son un homenaje al tapiz .
En los de Robin Hood: príncipe de los ladrones, aparecen directamente escenas del propio tapiz de Bayeux.
Los Simpsons le dedicaron un comienzo de episodio, un gag del sofá.
FRANCE – CIRCA 2002: Woodcutting, detail of Queen Mathilda’s Tapestry or Bayeux Tapestry depicting Norman conquest of England in 1066, France, 11th century. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

Publicado por ilabasmati

Licenciada en Bellas Artes, FilologÍa Hispánica y lIiteratura Inglesa.

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